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Referencing guide: Harvard Bath

There are many different versions of "Harvard" style citing and referencing. This guide is the University of Bath Library’s interpretation which is based on BS (1989) and ISO (1990) standards, and adapted in line with local preferences. If you are uncertain whether or not you should be using Harvard (Bath), please check with your department. We also provide a short PDF version of the Harvard (Bath) guide - see below.

There are standard reference formats for most types of document. Below are examples of the most common types of document you might want to reference. Each of the following gives a suggested standard format for the reference followed by examples for the different document types.

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. 

  • Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
  • Open University, 1972. Electricity and magnetism. Bletchley: Open University Press. 

Editor’s surname(s), INITIALS., ed. or eds (as appropriate), Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Rothman, K.J., Greenland, S. and Lash, T.L., eds, 2008. Modern epidemiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 

Author of chapter/paper’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. Surname of author/editor of book, followed by ed. or eds. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper or chapter. 

  • Reid, D.R., 1967. Physical testing of polymer films. In: S.H. Pinner, ed. Modern packaging films. London: Butterworths, pp.143-183. 

Author or company, Year. Title of program (version) [computer program]. Available from: distributor address or URL if downloaded [Accessed date].

  • @screencasto, n.d. Screencast-O-Matic (v.2) [computer program]. Available from: [Accessed 16 May 2016].

Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. surname of editor, ed. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.

  • Crawford, G.I., 1965. Oxygen in metals. In: J.M.A. Lenihan and S.J. Thompson, eds. Activation analysis: proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute, 2-4 August 1964, Glasgow. London: Academic Press, pp.113-118.

Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.

  • Soper, D., 1972. Review of bracken control experiments with asulam. Proceedings of the 11th British Weed Control Conference, 15-17 November 1972, Brighton. Brighton: University of Sussex, pp.24-31.


This format is not used to reference material from literature databases, such as ProQuest or EBSCO, but rather commercial databases used in industry (to which the Library subscribes), such as CompendexBSOL or Mintel.

Database provider, Year. Title of report as appropriate. Name of database [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher [if known]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • Bureau van Dijk, 2008. BT Group plc company reportFAME [Online]. London: Bureau van Dijk. Available from: [Accessed 6 November 2014].


Creator’s Surname, INITIALS., Year. Name of dataset [Online]. Publisher. Available from: DOI [Accessed date].

  • Wilson, D., 2013. Real geometry and connectedness via triangular description: CAD example bank [Online]. Bath: University of Bath. Available from: [Accessed 20 April 2016]. 

Note: if an ebook is a PDF copy of the equivalent print book, you can use the standard book format instead.

Online ebook

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • Haynes, W.M., ed., 2014. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics [Online]. 94th ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. Available from: [Accessed 16 June 2016].

Kindle ebook

  • Hodds, J., 2016. Referencing ebooks [Kindle version 4.18]. Bath: University of Bath. 

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [Online], volume(issue). Available from: URL >[Accessed date].

  • Williams, F., 1997. Electronic document delivery: a trial in an academic library. Ariadne [Online], 10. Available from: [Accessed 5 December 1997].

Note: Only enter the first letter of the journal title in upper case; for example: British journal of sociology.

Note: if you are sure the article is a PDF copy from the equivalent print journal, use the standard journal article format instead.

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Day Month Year. Subject of message. Discussion List [Online]. Available from: list email address [Accessed date].

  • Clark, T., 5 July 2004. A European UK Libraries Plus? Lis-link [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 30 July 2004].

Note: Private emails are referenced under Unpublished material

Title, Year of release. Material designation. Subsidiary originator (this is usually the director): directed by (followed by director’s name in full). Production details i.e. Place: Organisation.

  • Macbeth, 1948. Film. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.
How you reference an image depends on where it comes from: an image in a book will be referenced using the book format, adding the page number to the citation. An image from the Web will be referenced using the webpage format. For more information, refer to our guide on referencing images.

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(issue), page numbers.

  • Newman, R., 2010. Malaria control beyond 2010. Brit. Med. J., 341(7765), pp.157-208.

Note: you can give journal titles in either full or abbreviated formats, depending on the preference of your Department/tutor. See our guide to understanding journal abbreviations. If you enter the full title, only the first letter is entered in upper case; for example: British medical journal

House of Commons paper

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HC session dates, paper number).

  • Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004. National Savings investment deposits: account 2002-2003. London: National Audit Office (HC 2003/04, 30).

House of Lords paper

Note: These are treated exactly the same as House of Commons papers except that the paper number is enclosed in round brackets, to further distinguish them from identical HC paper numbers.

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HL session dates, (paper number)).

  • Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, 1987. Social fund (Maternity and Funeral Expenses) Bill. London: HMSO (HL 1986/87, (66)).

House of Commons/House of Lords bill

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons or Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Bills | session dates, bill number).

  • Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1988. Local government finance bill. London: HMSO (Bills | 1987/88, 66).

Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) before 1963

Note: before 1963, Acts were cited according to the regnal year (the number of years since the monarch’s accession to the throne).

Short title of Act and year (regnal year and abbreviated name of monarch, chapter number).

  • Witchcraft Act 1735 (9 Geo.2, c.5).

Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) 1963 onwards

Title of Act and year, chapter number. Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Pensions Act 2014, c.19. London: TSO.

Command paper (green paper, white paper, treaty, international agreement, Government response to a select committee report, Royal Commission report etc)

Great Britain. Name of Department, Committee or Royal Commission, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (Cm. number).

  • Great Britain. Ministry of Defence, 2004. Delivering security in a changing world: defence white paper. London: TSO (Cm. 6041).

Statutory instrument

Name of statutory instrument date [Online], number, place of publication: publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • The Human Medicines Regulations 2012 [Online], No.1916, United Kingdom: TSO. Available from: 20121916 en.pdf [Accessed 17 April 2016].

Legal case study

Party names. [Year of publication]. Volume number (if available). Law report abbreviation start page.

  • Seldon v Clarkson Wright & Jakes. [2012]. UKSC 16.

EU publication

Name of EU institution, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

  • European Commission, 2015. General report on the activities of the European Union 2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

EU regulation or directive, decision, recommendation or opinion

Legislation type and number and title [year] OJ series issue/first page.

  • Council Regulation (EC) 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and big eye tuna within the Community [2003] OJ L295.

Further advice on citing and referencing this type of document: Bournemouth University referencing guide

Judgment of the European Court of Justice

Note: The European Court of Justice is made up of three courts: Court of Justice; General Court (Court of First Instance until 2009) and Civil Service Tribunal. ECR in the reference below stands for European Court Report.

Case name (case number) [year] ECR citation.

  • Alessandrini Srl and others v. Commission (C-295/03 P) [2005] ECR I-5700.

Further advice on citing and referencing this type of document: Bournemouth University referencing guide


Originator’s surname, first name or INITIALS., Year. Title, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Andrews, J. and Dury, A., 1773. Map of Wiltshire, 1 inch to 2 miles. Devizes: Wiltshire Record Society.

Composer, Year. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

  • Beethoven, L. van, 1950. Symphony no.1 in C, Op.21. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Author’s surname, INITIALS. (or newspaper title if author unknown), Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, day and month, page number/s and column letter.

  • Haurant, S., 2004. Britain’s borrowing hits £1 trillion. The Guardian, 29 July, p.16c.
  • The Independent, 1992. Picking up the bills. The Independent, 4 June, p.28a.

Page numbers and column letters can only be included if you are referencing a printed newspaper article (or PDF equivalent). With online-only newspaper articles, please adapt by using the general advice on referencing online documents.

Originator [i.e. name of applicant], Year. Title of patent. Series designation which may include full date.

  • Phillipp Morris Inc., 1981. Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application 0021165A1. 1981-01-07.

Preprints are electronic articles that are yet to be formally published (e.g. not yet allocated a volume/issue number in a journal). The University of Bath's Research Portal is an example of a digital repository.

Author's Surname(s), INITIALS., year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of digital repository [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • Shah, I. and Corrick, I., 2016. How should central banks respond to non-neutral inflation expectations? Bath: University of Bath. OPUS [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 4 May 2016].

Author, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, (Report number, if given).

  • UNESCO, 1993. General information programme and UNISIST. Paris: UNESCO, (PGI-93/WS/22).

Standard number: Year. Title. Standards Issuing Body.

  • BS 5605:1990. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. BSI.

Creator’s surname, INITIALS., Year video/audio posted. Title of film or programme [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • Moran, C., 2016. Save our libraries [Online]. Available from: https://youtube/gKTfCz4JtVE [Accessed 29 April 2016].
  • Chakrabarti, V., 2016. How architecture and city planning can combat social inequality [Online]Available from: [Accessed 28 March 2019].

Series title: Episode number, Title of episode, Year. Medium. Transmitting organisation and channel, full date. Time of transmission.

  • Rick Stein’s French Odyssey: Episode 5, 2006. TV. BBC2, 23 August. 20.30 hrs.
  • The Archers, 2006. Radio. BBC Radio 4, 23 August. 19.02 hrs.

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title. Designation (type). Name of institution.

  • Burrell, J.G., 1973. The importance of school tours in education. Thesis (M.A.). Queen’s University, Belfast

Internal reports or guidelines, lecturer’s handouts, emails, interviews and conversations are examples of sources that are often unpublished. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. If you make use of unpublished written material, you can follow the below reference examples. If you want to refer to personal communications in your writing, you do not need to include a reference to them as there is effectively nothing to reference. All you can do is cite them in your text. You can find more information on how to cite personal communications under section 12 of the 'Write a citation' tab.

Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Institution (if known). Unpublished.

  • Harris, G., 2013. Focus group recommendations: internal task group report. Unpublished.
  • Hadley, S., 2015. Biomechanics: introductory reading, BM289: Sport biomechanics. University of Bath. Unpublished.
  • Thomas, D., 2015. Word count and referencing style. Frequently asked questions discussion board: PHYS 2011: Housing Studies. University of Bath. Unpublished.

Note: If you make use of a presentation, email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (for example, on a public website or in a book/article), you should reference it as you would any published source of information.

Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. (Edition if known). Place of publication: Publisher (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed date].

  • Holland, M., 2002. Guide to citing internet sources [Online]. Poole: Bournemouth University. Available from: [Accessed 4 November 2002].
Work in translation

When referencing a work that you have read in translation, cite the original author and acknowledge the version you have read in your reference.

Author(s) Surname, INITIALS, Date. Title (Name of translator, Trans.). Place of publication. Publisher.

  • Aristotle, 2007. Nicomachean ethics (W.D. Ross, Trans.). South Dakota: NuVisions.

Work in the Roman alphabet

Use the standard format for the type of literature (e.g. books, journal articles). Give the title of the work in the original language, and add the translated title in square brackets after it. Giving the translation simply helps the reader understand what the work is about. For a journal article, give a translation of the article title, but there’s no need to translate the journal title. 

Example for a book:

  • Esquivel, L., 2003. Como agua para chocolate [Like water for chocolate]. Barcelona: Debolsillo.

Example for a journal article:

  • Thurfjell, W., 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? [Where has our doctor gone?] Läkartidningen 72, p.789.

Work in a non-Roman alphabet

Here we really need to think about things like enabling filing order in the manuscript and what would be helpful to the English-speaking reader.

For non-Roman-alphabet languages you may need to include both a translation and a transliteration. Chinese or Japanese characters, immediately following the romanised version of the item they represent, help readers identify references cited or terms used. 

For the author (or organisation), you definitely need to use a transliteration of the name into the Roman alphabet. This will allow you to have one single list of references/bibliography in alphabetical order. Use a consistent transliteration system (e.g. pinyin for Chinese names or romaji for Japanese names).

For journal articles and other sources, you have a choice of two options (bullet points below). Whichever you choose, be consistent and use it throughout your bibliography. 

  • The Author’s name is given in Roman characters first (to allow the reference to file properly in your bibliography) and then the name in original characters immediately afterwards. The article title and journal title are given in their original language (both transliterated and in the original characters) followed by an English translation in square brackets. The rest of the reference follows the standard format.
  • The author’s name in Roman characters; the title transliterated into Roman alphabet with a translation in square brackets. There is no need to translate the journal title, just transliterate it. The rest of the reference follows the standard format.


  • Hua, L.華林甫, 1999. Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue中國社會科學, 1, pp.168–79.


  • Hua, L., 1999. Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty], Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1, pp.168–79.


  • Pamporov, A., 2006. Romskoto vsekidnevie v Balgariya [Roma everyday life in Bulgaria]. Veliko Tarnovo: Faber.

General guidelines

You need to be thorough and consistent when referencing source (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks. ​

  • Authors: list every single author/editor of a source in your full reference and in the same order that they appear on the back of the title page. The same surname (or organisational name) that appears at the start of your citation should appear at the start of your reference. If you are unable to identify either an individual named author or an organisation, you should enter Anon. (short for anonymous) instead.
  • Editions of books: do not include an edition number if you have used a 1st edition of a book.
  • Titles: Use uppercase only for the first letter of the title and names (persons, organisations or places).
  • Subtitles: All of the subtitle, including the first letter, should be entered in lower case (with the exception of names). The subtitle should be entered after a colon. For example: Reflective reader: social work and mental health.
  • Year of publication: if this is not provided within the source, you should enter n.d. (short for no date) instead. If you entered a letter at the end of a publication year (e.g. 2000b) within your in-text citation, the same year+letter should appear in the reference.
  • Publisher: enter the name of the publisher that published the specific edition/version that you are using. If a shortened name of a publisher appears on the title page, you can use this. For example, rather than John Wiley and Sons Inc., you could enter Wiley. If one of the following words appear within the publisher's name, don't include these in your reference: Ltd., Publisher or Publishing. If one of the following words appear, do include them: Press or Books. If you cannot identify a publisher, enter s.n. (short for sine nomine) instead.
  • Place of publication: if multiple places are listed, use the city or town that is listed first. Don't confuse a location of printing with a place of publication. USA-based publishers: after entering the name of the city/town, enter a comma followed by the abbreviated form of the state, for example Pa. = Pennsylvania. For more examples, please refer to standard USA state abbreviations.  If no place of publication is provider, enter the following: s.l. (short for sine loco).
  • Online documents: if you use a source that you found online, you may need to indicate this as follows:  
    • PDFs: if you are referencing a PDF which is a copy/equivalent of a print publication (with the same page numbers), your reference does not need to indicate that you found it online. For example, you do not need to include a web address or accessed date. However, if you are not sure about the PDF's origins, you need to use the format for other types of online document as outlined below.
    • Other types of online document (including PDFs and other sources that are not copies/equivalents of print publications): these are "online-only" sources and you need to indicate their online origins.  Some reference examples already indicate this (e.g. electronic book, electronic article, website).  However, you may need to adapt a format (e.g. adapt the 'report' format for an online-only report) by adding the following to the reference:  [Online], the web address (URL), and the date that you accessed the document.  Example of a reference to an online-only source: 
Haynes, W.M., ed., 2014. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics [Online]. 94th ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. Available from: [Accessed 16 June 2016].

You need to be thorough and consistent when citing sources (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks. 

1. If the author’s name occurs naturally within your writing, enter the surname and then enter the year in parentheses. 

Although first prepared by Benedikt (1879), it was not until much later that Osborn and Jay (1975) confirmed its structure. 

2. If the author’s name does NOT occur naturally within your writing, enter both the surname and year in parentheses. Note the use of the comma.  

Although it was first prepared in the later nineteenth century (Benedikt, 1879), its structure was not confirmed until much later (Osborn and Jay, 1975). 

3. Year of publication: this needs to be entered, where possible, when referencing any type of source (printed, online or software). With books, enter the date relevant to the edition of the book that you have used (do not confuse the date of a reprint with the date of a publication). If no date is provided by the source, enter n.d. (short for no date).

4. Page information/location: if you are quoting an author or citing an image/figure, always enter the relevant page number(s). It is also good practice to enter page numbers if you are citing a very specific piece of information that appears within a long document, such as a book. If you are entering a range of page numbers, enter pp. rather than p..

James and Williams (2003, p.75) have argued that...

No page numbers provided? Use the following within your citation:

  • Kindle ebooks: even where page numbers are provided, these can change when you resize your text, but you can use location numbers instead; for example: (Hodds, 2016, loc.1 of 4584). 
  • Webpages: you can identify the relevant paragraph from a webpage; for example: (Hodds, 2016, para.4). 

5. Two or three authors: cite both/all surnames in your text. 

Smith and Jamal (2010) have argued that…

6. Four or more authors: cite the first author’s/editor’s name, followed by et al., which is a notation meaning 'and others'. You will need to list all the authors in your reference list.

Case studies have been developed to support these claims (Andersen et al., 2004).

7. Citing multiple sources in a single citation (where they are making the same point): enter these in chronological order, starting with the earliest. For example: (Adams, 2005; Dass, 2012; Carter, 2015).  

If the multiple sources in a single citation are written by the same author, they would appear in the chronological order as follows: (Adams, 2009; 2014; 2017).

8. No individual person(s) as author: if the document is produced by an organisation, you can enter the organisation’s name as the author. If neither a person or an organisation can be identified, enter the title of the work where you would normally enter the author. If none of these alternative options are viable, enter Anon. (short for anonymous).  This also applies to citing government publications, including acts of law.

Statistics from a recent report (World water resources, 2011) indicated… 

This was recently discussed in a House of Commons paper (Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004).

The law specifies that ... (Pensions Act, 2014).

9. Multiple documents by one author published in the same year: Add an ‘a’ at the end of the publication year for the first document that you cite. Then add a ‘b’ for the second document, and so on. The same letter should appear in the corresponding full reference.  

Tavernor’s initial review of Palladio’s work (2001a) is extended and examined in much more detail in his later work (2001b). 

10. Citing a document that has been cited in another document: where it has not been possible for you to read the original, then cite both in the text. However, in your list of references, you would only list the work that you actually read (in the example below, you would only reference the work by Jones). Also note the use of the commas and the semi-colon.

An early interpretation (Walters, 1883; cited by Jones, 1987, p.73) suggested...

11. Images (graphs, diagrams, designs, illustrations, photographs): refer to the Referencing Images guide.  

12. Personal communications: emails, letters, conversations and interviews are examples of unpublished personal communications. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. You must cite all unpublished sources by providing the informant's name (if they are willing to give it, otherwise use Anon., short for anonymous) followed by (pers. comm.) and the date of the communication.

The Vice-Chancellor of one HE institution asserted that the recent rise in student numbers is having a detrimental effect on many aspects of university life, in particular forcing staff and students to attend teaching sessions after 6pm (Anon. (pers. comm.) 30 August 2006).

Note: If you make use of an email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (e.g. on a public website or in a book/article), you should cite it as you would cite any published source of information.

  • Title of list: either Reference List or References is fine (unless your department has specified one or the other). If you have been asked to list other works that you have read but not used in your writing, then provide a separate list for these under the heading Bibliography. 
  • Be thorough: the list should include a full reference for each cited source from within your main text (unless the source is unpublished material).
  • List references alphabetically by the author’s surname or organisational name. The surname or organisational name that appears at the start of your reference should be the exactly the same as the one that appears at the start of your citation. 
  • Multiple sources by the same author(s): list them in chronological order, starting with the earliest publication date.  
  • Multiple sources by the same author(s) published in the same year: List your references to the author in year/alphabetical order (2000a, 2000b). The year and letter should correspond to the one that you entered in your main text (an 'a' is added for the first cited source, a 'b' is added for the second, and so on). 
  • Multiple sources by the same first author with different co-author(s): list them in alphabetical order by the second author. If the first and second co-authors are the same for multiple references, list them in alphabetical order by third author (and so on). For example, a work by Taylor, S., and Morris, A. (2014) would be listed before a work by Taylor, S. and Williams, A. (2011).

Example of a reference list:

Burchard, J.E., 1965. How humanists use a library. In: C.F.J. Overhage and J.R. Harman, eds. Intrex: report on a planning conference and information transfer experiments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.41-87.

Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone. 

Stieg, M.F., 1981a. Continuing education and the reference librarian in the academic and research library. Library Journal, 105(22), pp.2547-2551.

Stieg, M.F., 1981b. The information needs of historians. College and research libraries, 42(6), pp.549-560.

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Books on referencing

Cite Them Right book cover

Cite Them Right (print book)

This guide to referencing for students and authors provides detailed examples for all print and electronic sources, business, government, technical and legal publications, works of art and images.

Please note: Cite Them Right is great to reference other sources that aren't listed on this page. However, you will need to adapt the examples from the book to the Harvard Bath style, as the Harvard style used by Cite Them Right is different. 

The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism book cover

The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism (e-book)

This edition continues to demystify the referencing process and provide essential guidance on making sure you are not committing plagiarism. It provides clear guidelines on why and when to reference as well as how to correctly cite from a huge range of sources.