There are many different versions of "Harvard" referencing. This guide is the University of Bath Library’s interpretation, based on BS (1989) and ISO (1990) standards, and adapted in line with local preferences. If you are uncertain whether you should use Harvard (Bath), check with your department. We also provide a short PDF version of the guide, as well as the full guide PDF.
There are standard reference formats for most types of document. Below are examples of the most common types of document you might want to reference. Each of the following gives a suggested standard format for the reference followed by examples for the different document types.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Open University, 1972. Electricity and magnetism. Bletchley: Open University Press.
Solomon, M.R., Askegaard, S., Hogg, M. and Bamossy, G.J., 2019. Consumer behaviour: a European perspective. 7th ed. Harlow: Pearson.
Editor’s surname(s), INITIALS., ed. or eds (as appropriate), Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
Rothman, K.J., Greenland, S. and Lash, T.L., eds, 2008. Modern epidemiology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Note: if an ebook is a PDF copy of the equivalent print book, you can use the standard book format instead.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Haynes, W.M., ed., 2014. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics [Online]. 94th ed. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. Available from: http://www.hbcpnetbase.com [Accessed 16 June 2016].
Blockley, D., 2021. Engineering: a very short introduction [Online]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available from: https://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle [Accessed 30 June 2021].
When referencing a book best known by its title (e.g. reference book), use the book title in place of the author:
Book title, Year. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
British National Formulary, 2020. 79th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
If you wish to refer to a particular entry within the book, give the section title in italics after the year. Page numbers should be included only for print books. For online reference books, do not give page numbers but give a URL and access date.
Entry from a print book:
Book title, Year. Edition. Section title. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.
British National Formulary, 2020. 79th ed. Aspirin. London: Pharmaceutical Press, pp.280-281.
Entry from an online book:
Book title, Year. Section title [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
British National Formulary, 2019. Aspirin [Online]. London: Pharmaceutical Press. Available from: https://www.medicinescomplete.com/#/content/bnf/_456850132 [Accessed 26 November 2019].
Author of chapter/paper’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. Surname of author/editor of book, followed by ed. or eds. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper or chapter.
Reid, D.R., 1967. Physical testing of polymer films. In: S.H. Pinner, ed. Modern packaging films. London: Butterworths, pp.143-183.
Author or company, Year. Title of program (version) [computer program]. Available from: distributor address or URL if downloaded [Accessed date].
@screencasto, n.d. Screencast-O-Matic (v.2) [computer program]. Available from: https://screencast-o-matic.com/ [Accessed 16 May 2016].
Note: Citing computer code within your coding script.
When writing code you should include a comment above the code you are reusing. If you are adapting the code, you must indicate that you have done so, for example by stating ‘Code adapted from:’. Your comment should include the Title (of the program/source code); Author of the code; Date (year the code was developed); Code version (if known); Available from: URL; Accessed date.
Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. surname of editor, ed. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.
Crawford, G.I., 1965. Oxygen in metals. In: J.M.A. Lenihan and S.J. Thompson, eds. Activation analysis: proceedings of a NATO Advanced Study Institute, 2-4 August 1964, Glasgow. London: Academic Press, pp.113-118.
Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.
Soper, D., 1972. Review of bracken control experiments with asulam. Proceedings of the 11th British Weed Control Conference, 15-17 November 1972, Brighton. Brighton: University of Sussex, pp.24-31.
This format is not used to reference material from literature databases, such as ProQuest or EBSCO, but rather commercial databases used in industry (to which the Library subscribes), such as Compendex, BSOL or Mintel.
Database provider, Year. Title of report as appropriate. Name of database [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher [if known]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Bureau van Dijk, 2008. BT Group plc company report. FAME [Online]. London: Bureau van Dijk. Available from: http://www.portal.euromonitor.com [Accessed 6 November 2014].
Creator’s Surname, INITIALS., Year. Name of dataset [Online]. Publisher. Available from: DOI [Accessed date].
Wilson, D., 2013. Real geometry and connectedness via triangular description: CAD example bank [Online]. Bath: University of Bath. Available from: https://doi.org/10.15125/BATH-00069 [Accessed 20 April 2016].
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Day Month Year. Subject of message. Discussion List [Online]. Available from: list email address [Accessed date].
Clark, T., 5 July 2004. A European UK Libraries Plus? Lis-link [Online]. Available from: email@example.com [Accessed 30 July 2004].
Note: Private emails are ‘unpublished’ please see the section called Unpublished written material and personal communications.
Title, Year of release. Material designation. Directed by (followed by director’s name in full). Production details i.e. Place: Organisation.
Macbeth, 1948. Film. Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.
Note: for film streamed online, insert [Online] after the title information. At the end of the reference add Available from: name of streaming service [Accessed date].
The elephant man [Online], 1980. Film. Directed by David Lynch. USA: Brooksfilms. Available from: BBC iPlayer [Accessed 4 May 2021].
If you have used an AI tool to assist in developing your work, for example with editing a word/sentence, summarising your notes or for proofreading, the minimum requirement is to include it in an ‘Acknowledgements’ statement in your work (see point 7 of the academic integrity statement and guidance from the Centre for Learning & Teaching). For example:
I acknowledge that this work is my own, and I used ChatGPT 3.5 (Open AI, https://chat.openai.com/) to summarise my initial notes and to proofread my final draft only.
However, where you have used an AI tool to generate content or ideas which you refer to in your work, you must acknowledge it as a secondary source. How you do this using Harvard Bath style will vary depending on whether the content is retrievable or non-retrievable:
Some AI-generated content, such as that generated by ChatGPT, can now be shared via a link. This means that it is possible to retrieve the output and therefore cite it in your text and provide a full reference for it as a published source. Harvard Bath’s general Website or Webpage template should be used. For example:
ChatGPT, 2023. Why is citing and referencing your sources important? [Online]. San Francisco, Calif.: OpenAI. Available from: https://chat.openai.com/share/782cb099-a0dc-45b1-8da4-0e99713f2d45 [Accessed 4 September 2023].
Some AI-generated content can not be retrieved or recovered after it has been generated and therefore, it is not published content. Where content can not be retrieved, you must still acknowledge the source of the content in your text, but don't include a full corresponding reference in your reference list/bibliography. You can acknowledge non-retrievable AI content using one of the following two methods:
You could opt to download the AI generated conversation at the point it is generated and include this copy in an appendix to your work. You could then refer to the appendix and specific sections within it in your text e.g. (Appendix 1, paragraph 2).
If you have no copy of the source and there is no published version online that can be retrieved, you should instead just give an in-text, ‘personal communications’ citation, as described in part 15 of our 'Write a citation' guidance.
This type of citation includes the author details followed by (pers. comm.) and the date of the communication. For example: (Google Bard AI (pers. comm.) 22 August 2023) which would then appear within your sentence/paragraph/caption where you address the source directly. For example:
This section of the report incorporates ideas generated using an online AI tool (Google Bard AI (pers. comm.) 22 August 2023).
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(issue), page numbers.
Newman, R., 2010. Malaria control beyond 2010. British medical journal, 341(7765), pp.157-208.
Wetzstein, G., Ozcan, A., Gigan, S., Fan, S., Englund, D., Soljacic, M., Denz, C., Miller, D.A.B. and Psaltis, D., 2020. Inference in artificial intelligence with deep optics and photonics. Nature, 588(7836), pp.39-47.
Note: You can give journal titles in either full or abbreviated format, depending on the preference of your department/tutor. See our guide to understanding journal abbreviations. If you enter the full title, only the first letter is entered in upper case; for example: British medical journal. If you use the abbreviated title it must be capitalised; for example: Brit. Med. J.
Note: if you are sure the article is a PDF copy from the equivalent print journal, use the standard journal article format instead.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [Online], volume(issue). Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Devlin, S.M., Martin, A. and Ostrovnaya, I., 2021. Identifying prognostic pairwise relationships among bacterial species in microbiome studies. PLOS computational biology [Online], 17(11). Available from: https://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009501 [Accessed 9 December 2021].
Note: You can give journal titles in either full or abbreviated format, depending on the preference of your department/tutor. See our guide to understanding journal abbreviations. If you enter the full title, only the first letter is entered in upper case; for example: British medical journal. If you use the abbreviated title it must be capitalised; for example: Br. J. Sociol.
Note: If you cannot find volume and/or issue number information (this might happen with some digital only journals), you can skip this part of the reference. Do not forget to include the URL. For example:
Steward, S., Connelly, D. and Robinson, J., 2020. Everything you should know about the coronavirus outbreak. The pharmaceutical journal [Online]. Available from: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/features/everything-you-should-know-about-the-coronavirus-outbreak/20207629.article [Accessed 30 April 2020].
Pre-publication e-journal article
You may find an electronic version of a journal article before it is in its final, published version in print. These can still be cited and referenced. As they will not yet have the volume, issue and page range details, that information can be omitted from the e-journal article reference. Instead, immediately following the ‘Journal title [Online],’ you can insert one of the following terms (appropriate to the stage the article is at in the publishing process):
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [Online], in press/preprint. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Liontou, C., Kontopodis, E., Oikonomidis, N., Maniotis, C., Tassopoulos, A., Tsiafoutis, I., Lazaris, E. and Koutouzis, M., 2019. Distal radial access: a review article. Cardiovascular revascularization medicine [Online], in press. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1553838919303367 [Accessed 19 June 2019].
These templates are primarily for sources used in print. If you have accessed an online version, you can adapt the format by adding the following to the reference: after the source title or equivalent, you can add [Online], whilst at the end of the reference add Available from: the web address (URL), and the [date you accessed the document]. For an example, see the Statutory instrument (online) template below. For further guidance on online documents, click on to the 'Write a Reference' tab at the top of this table.
Note: Other countries have their own conventions for referencing legal and government documents and you may need to adapt this advice accordingly.
House of Commons paper
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Year. Title. (HC session dates, paper number). Place of publication: Publisher.
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004. National savings investment deposits: account 2002-2003. (HC 2003/04, 30). London: National Audit Office.
House of Lords paper
Note: These are treated exactly the same as House of Commons papers except that the paper number is enclosed in round brackets, to further distinguish them from identical HC paper numbers.
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Year. Title. (HL session dates, (paper number)). Place of publication: Publisher.
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, 1987. Social fund (maternity and funeral expenses) bill. (HL 1986/87, (66)). London: HMSO.
House of Commons/House of Lords bill
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons or Lords, Year. Title. (Bills | session dates, bill number). Place of publication: Publisher.
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 1988. Local government finance bill. (Bills | 1987/88, 66). London: HMSO.
Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) before 1963
Note: before 1963, Acts were cited according to the regnal year (the number of years since the monarch’s accession to the throne).
Short title of Act and year (regnal year and abbreviated name of monarch, chapter number).
Witchcraft Act 1735 (9 Geo.2, c.5).
Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) 1963 onwards
Title of Act and year, chapter number. Place of publication: Publisher.
Pensions Act 2014, c.19. London: TSO.
Command paper (green paper, white paper, treaty, international agreement, Government response to a select committee report, Royal Commission report etc)
Great Britain. Name of Department, Committee or Royal Commission, Year. Title. (Cm. number). Place of publication: Publisher.
Great Britain. Ministry of Defence, 2004. Delivering security in a changing world: defence white paper. (Cm. 6041). London: TSO.
Name of statutory instrument date [Online], number, Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
The Human Medicines Regulations 2012 [Online], No.1916, United Kingdom: HMSO. Available from: https://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2012/1916/contents [Accessed 22 April 2021].
Legal case study
Party names. [Year of publication]. Volume number (if available). Law report abbreviation start page.
Seldon v. Clarkson Wright & Jakes. . UKSC 16.
Name of EU institution, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
European Commission, 2015. General report on the activities of the European Union 2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
EU regulation, directive, decision, recommendation or opinion
Legislation type and number and title [year] OJ series issue/first page.
Council Regulation (EC) 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and big eye tuna within the Community  OJ L295.
Judgment of the European Court of Justice
Note: The European Court of Justice is made up of three courts: Court of Justice; General Court (Court of First Instance until 2009) and Civil Service Tribunal. ECR in the reference below stands for European Court Report.
Case name (case number) [year] ECR citation.
Alessandrini Srl and others v. Commission (C-295/03 P)  ECR I-5700.
Originator’s surname, first name or INITIALS., Year. Title, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.
Andrews, J. and Dury, A., 1773. Map of Wiltshire, 1 inch to 2 miles. Devizes: Wiltshire Record Society.
Map publisher, Year published. Title of map section [Online], scale, map product name (where available). Available from: url or doi [Accessed date].
Ordnance Survey, 2020. Street view map of University of Bath [Online], 1:5000, OS VectorMap® Local. Available from:[Accessed 30 April 2020].
Google, 2020. Harbourside, Bristol [Online], Google Maps. Available from: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Harbourside,+Bristol/ [Accessed 30 April 2020].
Note: Dynamic online map products are unlikely to feature an obvious title for your map section (or custom selection). In such cases you can devise a title based on the location information in the map. In addition to location keywords, you may include coordinates or grid references to help define the main map feature.
If you need to cite and reference more than one online map from the same map publisher with the same publication year, you will need to distinguish between them. Follow the guidelines (part 9) under the ‘Write a Citation’ tab above.
Composer, Year. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Beethoven, L. van, 1950. Symphony no.1 in C, Op.21. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Author’s surname, INITIALS. (or newspaper title if author unknown), Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, day and month, page number/s and column letter.
Haurant, S., 2004. Britain’s borrowing hits £1 trillion. The Guardian, 29 July, p.16c.
The Independent, 1992. Picking up the bills. The Independent, 4 June, p.28a.
Page numbers and column letters can only be included if you are referencing a printed newspaper article (or PDF equivalent). With online-only newspaper articles, please adapt the above format by referring to our advice on referencing online documents. To find this advice, click the 'write a reference' tab in this guide. Here is an example:
Cogley, M., 2020. Corporate confidence slumps to record low. The Telegraph [Online], 4 May. Available from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2020/05/03/corporate-confidence-slumps-all-time-low/ [Accessed 5 May 2020].
Creator’s surname, INITIALS., Year video/audio posted. Title of film or programme [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Moran, C., 2016. Save our libraries [Online]. Available from: https://youtube/gKTfCz4JtVE [Accessed 29 April 2016].
Chakrabarti, V., 2016. How architecture and city planning can combat social inequality [Online]. Available from: https://www.curbed.com/2016/5/5/11593058/vishaan-chakrabarti-pau-curbed-appeal-podcast [Accessed 28 March 2019].
Originator [i.e. name of applicant], Year. Title of patent. Series designation which may include full date.
Phillipp Morris Inc., 1981. Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application 0021165A1. 1981-01-07.
Preprints are electronic articles that are yet to be formally published (e.g. not yet allocated a volume/issue number in a journal). The University of Bath's Research Portal is an example of a digital repository.
Author's Surname(s), INITIALS., year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of digital repository [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Shah, I. and Corrick, I., 2016. How should central banks respond to non-neutral inflation expectations? Bath: University of Bath. OPUS [Online]. Available from: http://opus.bath.ac.uk [Accessed 4 May 2016].
Ganju, V., 2021. A study of EnGeneIC Dream Vectors (EDV's) packaged with the chemotherapy, E-EDV-D682 given simultaneously as non-targeted EDVs carrying an immune enhancer called EDV-GC, in participants with advanced pancreatic and other cancers whose disease has progressed after one or two treatment regimes, or where other standard therapies are not appropriate. Sydney: University of Sydney. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry [Online]. Available from: http://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365258 [Accessed 29 April 2021].
Author, Year. Title. (Report or working paper number, if given). Place of publication: Publisher.
UNESCO, 1993. General information programme and UNISIST. (PGI-93/WS/22). Paris: UNESCO.
BRE, 2007. Designing quality buildings: a BRE guide. (Report 497). Bracknell: BRE.
Deneulin, S. and Dinerstein, A.C., 2010. Hope movements: social movements in the pursuit of human development. (Bath papers in international development and wellbeing, no. 8). Bath: University of Bath.
Creator’s surname, INITIALS. [handle if known], Year posted. Platform post [Online], Date posted. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Gaiman, N., 2021. Facebook post [Online], 21 April. Available from:[Accessed 13 May 2021].
Library at University of Bath [@bathunilibrary], 2021. Twitter post [Online], 10 May. Available from: https://twitter.com/BathUniLibrary/status/1391774402618998795?s=20 [Accessed 12 May 2021].
University of Bath Library [@unibathlib], 2021. Instagram post [Online], 15 March. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/CMb5GHjFv9A/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link [Accessed 7 May 2021].
Standards issuing body, year published. Standard number and Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
BSI, 1990. BS 5605:1990 Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. London: BSI.
ASTM, 2019. ASTM D1655 - 19 Standard specification for aviation turbine fuels. West Conshohocken, Pa: ASTM.
Title of episode (if available, if not use series title and episode number), Year. Series title, Episode number. Medium. Transmitting organisation and channel, full date. Time of transmission.
Hurry up and wait, 2021. Inside no.9, Episode 6:4. TV. BBC2, 31 May. 21.30 hrs.
Rick Stein’s French odyssey: Episode 5, 2006. TV. BBC2, 23 August. 20.30 hrs.
The Archers, 2006. Radio. BBC Radio 4, 23 August. 19.02 hrs.
Note: for tv/radio streamed online, insert [Online] after the italicised episode information. Substitute the transmission organisation and channel, full date with Available from: the name of the streaming service followed by [Accessed date].
The secret, 2020. Tiger king: murder, mayhem and madness, Episode 3 [Online]. TV. Available from: Netflix [Accessed 4 May 2021].
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title. Designation (type). Name of institution.
Burrell, J.G., 1973. The importance of school tours in education. Thesis (M.A.). Queen’s University, Belfast.
Internal reports or guidelines, lecturer’s handouts, emails, interviews and conversations are examples of sources that are often unpublished. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. If you make use of unpublished written material, you can follow the reference examples below. If you want to refer to personal communications in your writing, you do not need to include a reference to them as there is effectively nothing to reference. All you can do is cite them in your text. You can find more information on how to cite personal communications under section 15 of the 'Write a citation' tab.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Institution (if known). Unpublished.
Harris, G., 2013. Focus group recommendations: internal task group report. Unpublished.
Hadley, S., 2015. Biomechanics: introductory reading, BM289: sport biomechanics. University of Bath. Unpublished.
Thomas, D., 2015. Word count and referencing style. Frequently asked questions discussion board: PHYS 2011: housing studies. University of Bath. Unpublished.
Note: If you make use of a presentation, email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (for example, on a public website or in a book/article), you should reference it as you would any published source of information.
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed date].
World Health Organization, 2018. The top 10 causes of death [Online]. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death [Accessed 29 June 2020].
Manco, J., 2013. Vernacular architecture [Online]. Available from: https://www.buildinghistory.org/style/vernacular.shtml [Accessed 20 February 2020].
When referencing a work that you have read in translation, cite the original author and acknowledge the version you have read in your reference.
Author(s) Surname, INITIALS, Date. Title (Name of translator, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.
Aristotle, 2007. Nicomachean ethics (W.D. Ross, Trans.). Sioux Falls, S.D.: NuVisions.
Work in the Roman alphabet
Use the standard format for the type of literature (e.g. books, journal articles). Give the title of the work in the original language, and add the translated title in square brackets after it. Giving the translation simply helps the reader understand what the work is about. For a journal article, give a translation of the article title, but there’s no need to translate the journal title.
Example for a book:
Esquivel, L., 2003. Como agua para chocolate [Like water for chocolate]. Barcelona: Debolsillo.
Example for a journal article:
Thurfjell, W., 1975. Vart har våran doktor tagit vägen? [Where has our doctor gone?]. Läkartidningen, 72, p.789.
Work in a non-Roman alphabet
Here we really need to think about things like enabling filing order in the manuscript and what would be helpful to the English-speaking reader.
For non-Roman-alphabet languages you may need to include both a translation and a transliteration. Chinese or Japanese characters, immediately following the romanised version of the item they represent, help readers identify references cited or terms used.
For the author (or organisation), you definitely need to use a transliteration of the name into the Roman alphabet. This will allow you to have one single list of references/bibliography in alphabetical order. Use a consistent transliteration system (e.g. pinyin for Chinese names or romaji for Japanese names).
For journal articles and other sources, you have a choice of two options (bullet points below). Whichever you choose, be consistent and use it throughout your bibliography.
Hua, L.華林甫, 1999. Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu清代以來三峽地區水旱災害的初步硏 [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty]. Zhongguo shehui kexue中國社會科學, 1, pp.168–79.
Hua, L., 1999. Qingdai yilai Sanxia diqu shuihan zaihai de chubu yanjiu [A preliminary study of floods and droughts in the Three Gorges region since the Qing dynasty]. Zhongguo shehui kexue, 1, pp.168–79.
Pamporov, A., 2006. Romskoto vsekidnevie v Balgariya [Roma everyday life in Bulgaria]. Veliko Tarnovo: Faber.
If you would like to include a quote from a work in non-Roman alphabet, then there are a few options to consider:
Whichever option you choose, be consistent and use it throughout your work. In all cases a citation and reference to the original work is required.
You need to be thorough and consistent when referencing source (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks.
You need to be thorough and consistent when citing sources (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks.
1. If the author’s name occurs naturally within your writing, enter the surname and then enter the year in parentheses.
Although first prepared by Benedikt (1879), it was not until much later that Osborn and Jay (1975) confirmed its structure.
2. If the author’s name does NOT occur naturally within your writing, enter both the surname and year in parentheses. Note the use of the comma.
Although it was first prepared in the later nineteenth century (Benedikt, 1879), its structure was not confirmed until much later (Osborn and Jay, 1975).
3. Year of publication: this needs to be entered, where possible, when referencing any type of source (printed, online or software). With books, enter the date relevant to the edition of the book that you have used. If no date is provided by the source, enter n.d. (short for no date).
4. Page information/location: if you are quoting an author or citing an image/figure, always enter the relevant page number(s). It is also good practice to enter page numbers if you are citing a very specific piece of information that appears within a long document, such as a book. If you are entering a range of page numbers, enter pp. rather than p..
James and Williams (2003, p.75) have argued that...
No page numbers provided? Use the following within your citation:
5. Citing multiple sources in a single citation (where they are making the same point): enter these in chronological order, starting with the earliest. For example: (Adams, 2005; Dass, 2012; Carter, 2015).
If the multiple sources in a single citation are written by the same author, they would appear in the chronological order as follows: (Adams, 2009; 2014; 2017).
6. Citing a document that has been cited in another document: where it has not been possible for you to read the original, then cite both in the text. However, in your list of references, you would only list the work that you actually read (in the example below, you would only reference the work by Jones). Also note the use of the commas and the semi-colon.
An early interpretation (Walters, 1883; cited by Jones, 1987, p.73) suggested...
7. No individual person(s) as author: if the document is produced by an organisation, you can enter the organisation’s name as the author. If neither a person or an organisation can be identified, enter the title of the work where you would normally enter the author. If none of these alternative options are viable, enter Anon. (short for anonymous). Please note that with some legal or government documents (including, for example, UK Acts of Parliament), you should always enter the title of the document as the author - for detailed information about this, refer to the 'Legal or government document' section in the Reference Examples A-Z in this guide.
Statistics from a recent report (World water resources, 2011) indicated…
This was recently discussed in a House of Commons paper (Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004).
The law specifies that... (Pensions Act, 2014).
8. Multiple sources by the same author(s) published in the same year: See also our guidance in the ‘Organise a reference list’ section of this guide. To differentiate between the different sources, the first source listed in your reference list (alpha-numerically) has ‘a’ added after the year in both the citation and reference, the next source by the same author(s) in the same year cited, has ‘b’, and so on.
Tavernor’s initial review of Palladio’s work (2001a) is extended and examined in much more detail in his later work (2001b).
9. Different lead authors with the same surname: To enable the reader to differentiate between different lead authors with the same surname, you will need to include their initials in the citation. For example, for a single author source by John Wang in 2018 and one by Kathy Wang in 2020, the citations would be (Wang, J., 2018) and (Wang, K., 2020). If both these sources were published in the same year, this differentiation by author is sufficient to make them distinct.
10. Two or three authors: cite both/all surnames in your text.
Smith and Jamal (2010) have argued that…
10a. Refer to the section above re: authorship issues as needed e.g. if citing more than one source by the same pair of authors, these would be easily differentiated by year published. However, if citing more than one source published in the same year by the same pair of authors, follow rule 8.:
(Smith and Jamal, 2010a) and (Smith and Jamal, 2010b) …
11. Four or more authors: cite the first author’s/editor’s name, followed by et al., which is a notation meaning 'and others'. You will need to list all the authors in your reference list.
Case studies have been developed to support these claims (Andersen et al., 2004).
11a. Refer to the section above re: authorship issues as needed e.g. if citing more than one source by the same group of four or more of authors, these would be easily differentiated by year published. However, if citing more than one source published in the same year by the same group of four or more authors, follow rule 8.:
(Andersen et al., 2004a) and (Andersen et al., 2004b) …
11b. In rare cases you may need to refer to more than one source with four or more authors, where the first authors are different but share the same surname. You would follow rule 9. to differentiate by adding the first author initials.
For example, where citing a 2020 paper by Smith, A., Jones, B., Stacey, D. and Rogers, T. as well as a 2021 paper by Smith, J., Bloggs, C., Reilly, T. and Luscott, M. they could appear in citations as (Smith, A. et al., 2020) and (Smith, J. et al., 2021).
If these two sources were instead published in the same year, differentiating the different first authors is still sufficient to distinguish them e.g. (Smith, A. et al., 2002) and (Smith, J. et al., 2002).
12. Citing multiple sources by four or more authors, where each source has the same first author, but where at least one of the subsequent authors is different: If published in different years, it is sufficient to differentiate them by year even though some of the subsequent authors are different. For example, if citing a 1998 paper by R. Smith, C. Taylor, T. Rogers and D. Wang and a 2015 paper by R. Smith, D. Jones, D. Stacey and J. Lee, you could cite them as:
(Smith, et al., 1998) and (Smith, et al., 2015).
However, if the publications are from the same year, it is not sufficient to differentiate by the publication year. You will need to differentiate the citations by providing author surnames up to and including the first unique author. For example, if citing two 2020 papers, the first authored by R. Smith, C. Taylor, T. Rogers and D. Wang and the second by R. Smith, D. Jones, D. Stacey and J. Lee, you could cite them as:
(Smith, Taylor et al., 2020) and (Smith, Jones et al., 2020).
13. Citing an anonymised source: use the anonymised identifiers as appropriate e.g. ([Subject 1], 2021). See advice in the Write a reference section re: Anonymising sources.
14. Images (graphs, diagrams, designs, illustrations, photographs): refer to the Referencing Images guide.
15. Personal communications: emails, letters, conversations, generative AI content and interviews are examples of unpublished personal communications. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. You must cite all unpublished sources by providing the informant's name (if they are willing to give it, otherwise use Anon., short for anonymous) followed by (pers. comm.) and the date of the communication.
The Vice-Chancellor of one HE institution asserted that the recent rise in student numbers is having a detrimental effect on many aspects of university life, in particular forcing staff and students to attend teaching sessions after 6pm (Anon. (pers. comm.) 30 August 2006).
Note: If you make use of an email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (e.g. on a public website or in a book/article), you should cite it as you would cite any published source of information.
Burchard, J.E., 1965. How humanists use a library. In: C.F.J. Overhage and J.R. Harman, eds. Intrex: report on a planning conference and information transfer experiments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.41-87.
Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Stieg, M.F., 1981a. Continuing education and the reference librarian in the academic and research library. Library journal, 105(22), pp.2547-2551.
Stieg, M.F., 1981b. The information needs of historians. College and research libraries, 42(6), pp.549-560.
You will find below a list of style files, allowing you to import the Harvard (Bath) style referencing into your reference management software such as EndNote Desktop (also known as EndNote 20 / X9).
You can not import these style files into EndNote Online. Harvard (Bath) is already installed, along with many other referencing styles, within EndNote Online.