There are many different versions of "Harvard" style citing and referencing. This guide is the University of Bath Library’s interpretation which is based on BS (1989) and ISO (1990) standards, and adapted in line with local preferences. If you are uncertain whether or not you should be using Harvard (Bath), please check with your department. We also provide a short PDF version of the Harvard (Bath) guide - see below.
There are standard reference formats for most types of document. Below are examples of the most common types of document you might want to reference. Each of the following gives a suggested standard format for the reference followed by examples for the different document types.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
Editor’s surname(s), INITIALS., ed. or eds (as appropriate), Year. Title. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
Author of chapter/paper’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. Surname of author/editor of book, followed by ed. or eds. Title of book. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper or chapter.
Author or company, Year. Title of program (version) [computer program]. Available from: distributor address or URL if downloaded [Accessed date].
Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. In: INITIALS. surname of editor, ed. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.
Author of paper’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title of paper. Title of conference proceedings, full date, place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of paper.
This format is not used to reference material from literature databases, such as ProQuest or EBSCO, but rather commercial databases used in industry (to which the Library subscribes), such as Compendex, BSOL or Mintel.
Database provider, Year. Title of report as appropriate. Name of database [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher [if known]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Creator’s Surname, INITIALS., Year. Name of dataset [Online]. Publisher. Available from: DOI [Accessed date].
Note: if an ebook is a PDF copy of the equivalent print book, you can use the standard book format instead.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Journal title [Online], volume(issue). Available from: URL >[Accessed date].
Note: Only enter the first letter of the journal title in upper case; for example: British journal of sociology.
Note: if you are sure the article is a PDF copy from the equivalent print journal, use the standard journal article format instead.
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Day Month Year. Subject of message. Discussion List [Online]. Available from: list email address [Accessed date].
Note: Private emails are referenced under Unpublished material
Title, Year of release. Material designation. Subsidiary originator (this is usually the director): directed by (followed by director’s name in full). Production details i.e. Place: Organisation.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number(issue), page numbers.
Note: you can give journal titles in either full or abbreviated formats, depending on the preference of your Department/tutor. See our guide to understanding journal abbreviations. If you enter the full title, only the first letter is entered in upper case; for example: British medical journal.
House of Commons paper
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HC session dates, paper number).
House of Lords paper
Note: These are treated exactly the same as House of Commons papers except that the paper number is enclosed in round brackets, to further distinguish them from identical HC paper numbers.
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (HL session dates, (paper number)).
House of Commons/House of Lords bill
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons or Lords, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Bills | session dates, bill number).
Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) before 1963
Note: before 1963, Acts were cited according to the regnal year (the number of years since the monarch’s accession to the throne).
Short title of Act and year (regnal year and abbreviated name of monarch, chapter number).
Act of Parliament (UK Statutes) 1963 onwards
Title of Act and year, chapter number. Place of publication: Publisher.
Command paper (green paper, white paper, treaty, international agreement, Government response to a select committee report, Royal Commission report etc)
Great Britain. Name of Department, Committee or Royal Commission, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (Cm. number).
Name of statutory instrument date [Online], number, place of publication: publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Legal case study
Party names. [Year of publication]. Volume number (if available). Law report abbreviation start page.
Name of EU institution, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
EU regulation or directive, decision, recommendation or opinion
Legislation type and number and title [year] OJ series issue/first page.
Further advice on citing and referencing this type of document: Bournemouth University referencing guide
Judgment of the European Court of Justice
Note: The European Court of Justice is made up of three courts: Court of Justice; General Court (Court of First Instance until 2009) and Civil Service Tribunal. ECR in the reference below stands for European Court Report.
Case name (case number) [year] ECR citation.
Further advice on citing and referencing this type of document: Bournemouth University referencing guide
Originator’s surname, first name or INITIALS., Year. Title, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.
Composer, Year. Title of work. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.
Author’s surname, INITIALS. (or newspaper title if author unknown), Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, day and month, page number/s and column letter.
Page numbers and column letters can only be included if you are referencing a printed newspaper article (or PDF equivalent). With online-only newspaper articles, please adapt by using the general advice on referencing online documents.
Originator [i.e. name of applicant], Year. Title of patent. Series designation which may include full date.
Preprints are electronic articles that are yet to be formally published (e.g. not yet allocated a volume/issue number in a journal). The University of Bath's Research Portal is an example of a digital repository.
Author's Surname(s), INITIALS., year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of digital repository [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Author, Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, (Report number, if given).
Standard number: Year. Title. Standards Issuing Body.
Creator’s surname, INITIALS., Year video/audio posted. Title of film or programme [Online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
Series title: Episode number, Title of episode, Year. Medium. Transmitting organisation and channel, full date. Time of transmission.
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title. Designation (type). Name of institution.
Internal reports or guidelines, lecturer’s handouts, emails, interviews and conversations are examples of sources that are often unpublished. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. If you make use of unpublished written material, you can follow the below reference examples. If you want to refer to personal communications in your writing, you do not need to include a reference to them as there is effectively nothing to reference. All you can do is cite them in your text. You can find more information on how to cite personal communications under section 12 of the 'Write a citation' tab.
Author’s surname(s), INITIALS., Year. Title. Institution (if known). Unpublished.
Note: If you make use of a presentation, email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (for example, on a public website or in a book/article), you should reference it as you would any published source of information.
Author’s surname, INITIALS., Year. Title [Online]. (Edition if known). Place of publication: Publisher (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed date].
When referencing a work that you have read in translation, cite the original author and acknowledge the version you have read in your reference.
Author(s) Surname, INITIALS, Date. Title (Name of translator, Trans.). Place of publication. Publisher.
Work in the Roman alphabet
Use the standard format for the type of literature (e.g. books, journal articles). Give the title of the work in the original language, and add the translated title in square brackets after it. Giving the translation simply helps the reader understand what the work is about. For a journal article, give a translation of the article title, but there’s no need to translate the journal title.
Example for a book:
Example for a journal article:
Work in a non-Roman alphabet
Here we really need to think about things like enabling filing order in the manuscript and what would be helpful to the English-speaking reader.
For non-Roman-alphabet languages you may need to include both a translation and a transliteration. Chinese or Japanese characters, immediately following the romanised version of the item they represent, help readers identify references cited or terms used.
For the author (or organisation), you definitely need to use a transliteration of the name into the Roman alphabet. This will allow you to have one single list of references/bibliography in alphabetical order. Use a consistent transliteration system (e.g. pinyin for Chinese names or romaji for Japanese names).
For journal articles and other sources, you have a choice of two options (bullet points below). Whichever you choose, be consistent and use it throughout your bibliography.
You need to be thorough and consistent when referencing source (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks.
You need to be thorough and consistent when citing sources (for example, in the use of commas and italics). Otherwise, you may lose marks.
1. If the author’s name occurs naturally within your writing, enter the surname and then enter the year in parentheses.
Although first prepared by Benedikt (1879), it was not until much later that Osborn and Jay (1975) confirmed its structure.
2. If the author’s name does NOT occur naturally within your writing, enter both the surname and year in parentheses. Note the use of the comma.
Although it was first prepared in the later nineteenth century (Benedikt, 1879), its structure was not confirmed until much later (Osborn and Jay, 1975).
3. Year of publication: this needs to be entered, where possible, when referencing any type of source (printed, online or software). With books, enter the date relevant to the edition of the book that you have used (do not confuse the date of a reprint with the date of a publication). If no date is provided by the source, enter n.d. (short for no date).
4. Page information/location: if you are quoting an author or citing an image/figure, always enter the relevant page number(s). It is also good practice to enter page numbers if you are citing a very specific piece of information that appears within a long document, such as a book. If you are entering a range of page numbers, enter pp. rather than p..
James and Williams (2003, p.75) have argued that...
No page numbers provided? Use the following within your citation:
5. Two or three authors: cite both/all surnames in your text.
Smith and Jamal (2010) have argued that…
6. Four or more authors: cite the first author’s/editor’s name, followed by et al., which is a notation meaning 'and others'. You will need to list all the authors in your reference list.
Case studies have been developed to support these claims (Andersen et al., 2004).
7. Citing multiple sources in a single citation (where they are making the same point): enter these in chronological order, starting with the earliest. For example: (Adams, 2005; Dass, 2012; Carter, 2015).
If the multiple sources in a single citation are written by the same author, they would appear in the chronological order as follows: (Adams, 2009; 2014; 2017).
8. No individual person(s) as author: if the document is produced by an organisation, you can enter the organisation’s name as the author. If neither a person or an organisation can be identified, enter the title of the work where you would normally enter the author. If none of these alternative options are viable, enter Anon. (short for anonymous). This also applies to citing government publications, including acts of law.
Statistics from a recent report (World water resources, 2011) indicated…
This was recently discussed in a House of Commons paper (Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 2004).
The law specifies that ... (Pensions Act, 2014).
9. Multiple documents by one author published in the same year: Add an ‘a’ at the end of the publication year for the first document that you cite. Then add a ‘b’ for the second document, and so on. The same letter should appear in the corresponding full reference.
Tavernor’s initial review of Palladio’s work (2001a) is extended and examined in much more detail in his later work (2001b).
10. Citing a document that has been cited in another document: where it has not been possible for you to read the original, then cite both in the text. However, in your list of references, you would only list the work that you actually read (in the example below, you would only reference the work by Jones). Also note the use of the commas and the semi-colon.
An early interpretation (Walters, 1883; cited by Jones, 1987, p.73) suggested...
11. Images (graphs, diagrams, designs, illustrations, photographs): refer to the Referencing Images guide.
12. Personal communications: emails, letters, conversations and interviews are examples of unpublished personal communications. Interviews can include interviews that you have conducted yourself. You must cite all unpublished sources by providing the informant's name (if they are willing to give it, otherwise use Anon., short for anonymous) followed by (pers. comm.) and the date of the communication.
The Vice-Chancellor of one HE institution asserted that the recent rise in student numbers is having a detrimental effect on many aspects of university life, in particular forcing staff and students to attend teaching sessions after 6pm (Anon. (pers. comm.) 30 August 2006).
Note: If you make use of an email, letter, interview or conversation that has been published (e.g. on a public website or in a book/article), you should cite it as you would cite any published source of information.
Burchard, J.E., 1965. How humanists use a library. In: C.F.J. Overhage and J.R. Harman, eds. Intrex: report on a planning conference and information transfer experiments. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp.41-87.
Rang, H.P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M., Flower, R.J. and Henderson, G., 2012. Rang and Dale’s pharmacology. 7th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Stieg, M.F., 1981a. Continuing education and the reference librarian in the academic and research library. Library Journal, 105(22), pp.2547-2551.
Stieg, M.F., 1981b. The information needs of historians. College and research libraries, 42(6), pp.549-560.