Many of the key data archives for health and medical research datasets function either as social sciences specialist archives or general interdisciplinary data archives. There are a few discipline-specific data archives for health and medical research. These are mostly based in the USA but tend hold international datasets. This is particularly the case for data from clinical trials.
On this page you will find a list of data archives for health and medicine, and list of major datasets for health and medical research. You can search re3data or FAIRSharing for a full list of research data archives publishing health and medicine datasets.
There are numerous longitudinal UK datasets that can be used for health research; this is a list of major datasets that have widespread use nationally and internationally. Please note that many of these require payment for access to data.